Slavery was a universal and totally accepted feature of ancient Greek society, so much so that while the conditions under which slaves lived and worked varied considerably, many ordinary citizens kept at least one slave, often working alongside their owners, while larger commercial enterprises involved huge numbers, many of whom could rise to positions of authority and wealth. It was possible for some slaves to buy their freedom, while others lived and died in conditions of appalling brutality, notably in the silver mines at Laurium. The revenues from these mines paid for the fleet with which Athens defeated Xerxes and were the basis of the Attic owls, the four drachma coins that revolutionized the Athenian economy. The mines were often leased to contractors and worked by slaves and condemned criminals. The galleries averaged approximately three and a half feet in height, so most miners had to work on their hands and knees. Another specific group of slaves that suffered particularly brutal treatment was the pornai, slaves used in the brothels as prostitutes. While those sound like the conditions of slavery people are accustomed to hearing about in more modern times, other forms of slavery in Greece were quite unique, and perhaps fittingly, Sparta might have had the most unusual system of all. Sparta will forever be known for its military prowess, but the importance the Spartans placed upon being a warrior society meant their way of life was entirely dependent on a class of indentured servants known as the helots. The Spartans needed the helots to maintain the domestic front, but they also frequently brought helots to the battlefield with them, and they repeatedly had to turn their own hoplites on unruly helots to suppress potential rebellions. As this makes clear, however unpalatable it may be to modern historians who expound on the virtues of the Greek legacy to western civilization, it is indisputably the case that slavery constituted a central pa 1. Language: English. Narrator: Ken Teutsch. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/075632/bk_acx0_075632_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Meet the greatest Greek general you´ve never heard of: Philopoemen. In his day, a leader as skilled and as dangerous as Hannibal: a ferocious fighter, a superb general, and credited as the inventor of modern ´special operations´. More importantly, he was a brilliant political leader. He commanded Greek forces at the turn of the third century BC, when mighty Rome, fresh from the destruction of Carthage, and Imperial Macedon, the greatest power of the day, chose Greece as their battlefield. In a world of rival empires, slave-taking cartels, piracy, terrorism and failed states, will Philopoemen be able to hold anything together? 1. Language: English. Narrator: John Telfer. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/orio/001943/bk_orio_001943_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
The armies of Persia - a vast horde greater than any the world has ever known -- are poised to crush Greece, an island of reason and freedom in a sea of madness and tyranny. Standing between Greece and this tidal wave of destruction are a tiny detachment of but three hundred warriors. Frank Miller´s epic retelling of history´s supreme moment of battlefield valour is finally collected in a glorious hardcover volume.
There have been no shortage of great warrior societies in history, including the Romans, Mongols, Macedonians, and Vikings, and the list goes on. Yet one humble city in particular, nestled in a valley near the Eurotas River in the Greek region of the Peloponnese and once ridiculed as little more than a cluster of villages inhabited by uncouth shepherds, produced the most famous warrior elite the world has ever known. The most unique city-state in ancient Greece was Sparta, which continues to fascinate contemporary society. It is not entirely clear why Sparta placed such a great emphasis on having a militaristic society, but the result was that military fitness was a preoccupation from birth. If a Spartan baby did not appear physically fit at birth, it was left to die. Spartan children underwent military training around the age of seven years old, and every male had to join the army around the age of 18. The Spartans, whose carefully constructed approach to warfare and - there is no other word for it - Spartan way of life, earned the grudging admiration of all of Greece and succeeded in establishing themselves in the years following the reforms of the semi-legendary ruler Lycurgus as the greatest military force in all of Hellas. Athens might have the mightiest fleet and the greatest cadre of philosophers and dramatists, Thessaly might have had the most vaunted cavalry, and the great city-states of Argos, Thebes, and Corinth all had their own claims to fame, but on the battlefield the Spartan phalanx stood without peer. So feared were they in Greece that their very appearance on the battlefield could cause entire enemy armies to flee in terror, and in one of history´s most famous battles, 300 Spartan warriors headed a combined Greek force which held off the hundreds of thousands of Persian warriors of Xerxes´ invading army for three days at Thermopylae, inflicting an estimated 20,000 casualties upon them before dying to the last man rather than retr 1. Language: English. Narrator: Scott Clem. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/076935/bk_acx0_076935_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
It is hard to find an island on the map more central than Sicily. Located at the crossroads between Europe and Africa, and between the eastern and western Mediterranean, Sicily has rarely been governed as an independent, unified state. Nonetheless, the island has always occupied a front-row seat to some of the most important events in history. Very fertile in ancient times, Sicily was especially prized for its grain production. The island had been inhabited by native tribes since prehistoric times, but by the 9th and 8th centuries BCE, Sicily would be the staging area for a confrontation between the Greeks and the Phoenicians, seafaring powers that scrambled to establish colonies along its coasts. It was during the Classical era that, especially under the tyrants of the Greek city of Syracuse, Sicily came the closest to being governed as a single, unified, and independent state. In time, it came to challenge the powerful trade empire of Carthage, a former Phoenician colony in North Africa, and it vied with the cities and kingdoms of mainland Greece for primacy in the Greek world. Later on, Sicily would be both a prize and a battlefield during the First Punic War (263-241 BCE) and, to a lesser degree, also during the Second Punic War (218-201 BCE). These were massive, protracted conflicts between Carthage and the rising Roman Republic, and Rome would subsequently become the main power in the Mediterranean on its way to ruling much of the known world. Sicily would go on to become the Roman Republic´s first territory outside of Italy and its first province; and Hieron, the tyrant of Syracuse at the time, would be Rome´s first client king. The province of Sicily would be crucial when it came to providing funds, and especially grain, to the rising Roman Republic. After the Punic Wars, Sicily would remain a Roman domain until the end of antiquity, and affairs on the island dramatically affected the Romans at home. The First Servile War (135-132 1. Language: English. Narrator: Mark Norman. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/096985/bk_acx0_096985_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
From the time of Ancient Sumeria, the heavy infantry phalanx dominated the battlefield. Armed with spears or pikes, standing shoulder to shoulder, and with overlapping shields, they presented an impenetrable wall of wood and metal to the enemy. It was the phalanx that allowed Greece to become the dominant power in the Western world. That is, until the Romans developed the legion and cracked the phalanx.In Legion versus Phalanx Cole weighs the two fighting forces against each other. Covering the period in which the legion and phalanx clashed (280--168 BC), he looks at each formation in detail - delving into their tactics, arms, and equipment, organization and the deployment. It then examines six key battles in which legion battled phalanx: Heraclea (280 BC), Asculum (279 BC), Beneventum (275 BC), Cynoscephalae (197 BC), Magnesia (190 BC), and Pydna (168 BC) - battles that determined the fate of the ancient world. Drawing on original primary sources, Myke Cole presents a highly detailed but lively history of this defining clash of military formations.PLEASE NOTE: When you purchase this title, the accompanying PDF will be available in your Audible Library along with the audio. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Alexander Cendese. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/brll/011404/bk_brll_011404_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Discover the greatest armies in history and their secret strategies for warfare. Get ready to take a journey through the history of the ancient Greek, Egyptian, and Roman armies. Specifically, you should be ready to discover the strategies and weapons used by each army and how they helped make the military what it is today. In this book, we are going to show how ancient commanders and their military men played a crucial role in determining who would control the world - its resources and its wealth. We will talk about the early history of warfare and how, through its sometimes brutal and devastating battles, we´ve learned how to defend our country from the threat of tyranny and oppression. In ancient times, some cultures regarded serving in the military as an honor and a duty - while in others, it was a requirement. In this book, we are going to explore each of these cultures and how they formed their militaries, how they innovated on the battlefield, and how they conquered nations against all odds. We´ll also cover how ancient militaries shaped - and defined the course of - the world we live in today. When you download this book you´ll also discover: How business people in ancient Greece made some of the best army recruits How military action eventually birthed democracy The exact formation ancient Greek soldiers used to defeat their enemies How ancient Greeks would consult their gods before deciding to go to war How ancient Rome grew from a small town on the Tiber River to a massive empire The legend of Romulus, who was said to have been raised by a wolf woman and who started Rome The differences between Egyptian, Chinese, and Greek styles of fighting How the ancient Greeks would defeat whole armies - without attacking or doing a single thing to them How ancient Greek naval tactics are employed in today´s navy 1. Language: English. Narrator: Nathan W Wood. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/077616/bk_acx0_077616_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
From a RITA winner and USA Today best-seller, and winner of the Carol Award comes an epic love story of betrayal and redemption. Markos Stavros wants to be a man of honor… The last thing Marcos Stavros expects on the eve of his brother’s wedding is to say goodbye to the land—and family he loves. But a tragic event forces him to flee his beloved Greece, taking with him his younger brother Dino and the girl he loves, Sophia Frangos. With promises to care for both of them, Marcos must trust a man he’s never met—his uncle Jimmy, the owner of a café during the bootleg era of Al Capone’s Chicago. Suddenly Marcos is in a world he doesn’t understand, forced to make sacrifices he can’t live with. When he’s forced to choose between family and the woman he loves, he makes a desperate attempt at freedom… Dino Stavros longs to forget the promises he broke… The last promise Dino made to Marcos was to watch over Sophia. But ten years later, Dino has put the tragedies of Chicago behind him, diving into his new life as a medical resident in Minneapolis, his promises forgotten. The world is not large enough, however, to keep him from reuniting with Sophia, and the reminders of all they lost together. When Pearl Harbor destroys his dreams, he turns to the one woman who truly knows him for comfort and redemption, only to find himself in the middle of a terrible betrayal. His only chance for honor comes in the battlefields of France—but is it too late to keep his promises? Sophie Frangos´s heart has been broken twice… Sophie can’t believe she’s lost both the men she loved, but she will have to put her grief behind her if she hopes to survive the German occupation of Greece. More, she’s become a link to the OSS agents helping to plot a British invasion. But what will freedom cost her? And can Marcos and Dino 1. Language: English. Narrator: Jackson Nickolay. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/112576/bk_acx0_112576_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
For 2500 years, the Ancient Greeks have fascinated the West, who look to Greece as the creators of Western culture. Indeed, the Greeks revolutionized warfare, art, architecture, government, philosophy, and more. Of all the Greeks´ accomplishments, many can be credited to the two most famous city-states of all: Athens and Sparta. The most unique city-state in Ancient Greece was Sparta, which continues to fascinate contemporaneous society. It is not entirely clear why Sparta placed such a great emphasis on having a militaristic society, but the result was that military fitness was a preoccupation from birth. If a Spartan baby did not appear physically fit at birth, it was left to die. Spartan children underwent military training around the age of 7 years old, and every male had to join the army around the age of 18. The Spartans, whose carefully constructed approach to warfare and - there is no other word for it - Spartan way of life, earned the grudging admiration of all of Greece and succeeded in establishing themselves in the years following the reforms of the semi-legendary ruler Lycurgus as the greatest military force in all of Hellas. Athens might have the mightiest fleet and the greatest cadre of philosophers and dramatists, Thessaly might have had the most vaunted cavalry, and the great city-states of Argos, Thebes and Corinth all had their own claims to fame, but on the battlefield the Spartan phalanx stood without peer. Athens was a military force in its own right, but it´s chiefly remembered for its political system, which would in time form the nucleus of all Western democratic systems of government, and the remarkable number of outstanding individuals who lived and flourished in the enlightened city-state. The Ancient Athenians formed the backbone of the West´s entire culture, from the arts to philosophy and everything in between. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Ken Teutsch. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/096066/bk_acx0_096066_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.